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27 August 2021
COVID-19: Redox Nutrition for Bioenergetics and Cellular Health
Viruses lack metabolic machinery to replicate; therefore, regarded as non-living. Their survival, growth and multiplication depend on infecting live organisms and reprograming host cellular metabolism – especially, the mitochondrial function. The SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly reprograms the human metabolism with an array of clinical manifestations. The COVID-19 pathogen primarily targets specific human cell surface proteins such as ACE2 and NRP1 (linked to hematogenous functions) with high bioenergetic activity. The viral interaction with host cell surface receptors results in lowering of blood pressure, reduction in oxygen supply to the host tissue leading to hypoxia. The hypoxic condition trigger HIF-1α release, which switches the mitochondria from high bioenergetic (32-ATP) oxidative-phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to a low energetic (2-ATP) glycolysis to facilitate pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) for synthesis and assembly of viral components. At this stage, the cellular oxidative stress could mediate an acute ‘cytokine storm’ in the host. The Nrf2 regulation of antioxidant pathways by the redox gene ADAM17/TACE may express the asymptomatic or symptomatic clinical manifestations of COVID-19 infection. In summary, the viral reprogramming of host metabolism with altered mitochondrial activity and redox imbalance (oxidative stress) are critical in the clinical management of COVID-19.
COVID-19 is a high energy demanding viral infection that operates at the cost of host metabolism. Mitochondrial dysfunction, fatigue, depression, sudden display of metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, asthma and sexual dysfunction (infertility) are serious post-clinical manifestations among individuals recovered from COVID-19. The ongoing vaccination trials put additional metabolic burden on anabolic pathways of host immune response. A balanced and healthy diet could modulate mitochondrial bioenergetics to provide adequate energy, as well as redox homeostasis (oxidant/antioxidant balance) to support the caloric intervention in the recovery of COVID-19. Personalized nutrition is shown effective in the clinical management of several metabolic syndromes and other comorbidities in high-risk population groups such as the elderly and pregnant mothers. Dietary, lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors can all influence host metabolism at the cellular level. There is a paucity of clinical and translational research investigating the complex relationship between bioactive nutrients, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress (redox homeostasis), and overall health outcomes. In this Special Issue, the Editorial Board seeks to publish high-quality studies that can further our understanding of how dietary supplements may influence the redox homeostasis, the energy metabolism, and the cellular health of a human host. All experimental approaches are welcome, from basic discovery science to clinical studies and epidemiological investigations.
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Select “COVID-19: Redox Nutrition for Bioenergetics and Cellular Health” when submitting your paper to ScholarOne.
The special issue will entertain the following types of manuscripts:
- Original research articles
- Narrative, comprehensive and scoping reviews
- Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
- Reports from authoritative scientific groups or government agencies
- Expert commentaries and opinions (by invitation only)
Please refer to the journal’s “Instructions for Authors” page for guidance on preparing your manuscript for submission. All submitted material will undergo peer-review by the special issue editors and other designees. Articles will publish online upon acceptance and will appear in volume 18, issue 6 (2021) of the journal.
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