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Cannabidiol and other Cannabinoids

This Special Issue is the first of its kind on CBD and other phytocannabinoids and includes articles in the fields of pharmacology, toxicology, and regulation.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic constituent of Cannabis sativa that has grown in popularity during the last decade. CBD is the active component of EPIDIOLEX®, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug designed for the treatment of drug-resistant pediatric epileptic seizures associated with several rare syndromes. Furthermore, CBD has been proposed as a treatment for a number of other diseases for which clinical trials are now ongoing.

Accumulating evidence indicates that the number of “CBD-containing” products, available mostly online, is growing exponentially. However, the U.S. FDA currently prohibits sales of CBD as a dietary supplement (DS) or ingredient in conventional food. Further, clear federal regulatory and quality oversight does not exist, which has led to an uncontrolled CBD market that, in turn, threatens to result in negative health effects experienced by a trusting public.

Thus, there are open questions demanding answers in the very near future: For which medical purposes is CBD provably effective? Can it be used safely as a non-prescription product? At what level? Is a hemp extract that contains CBD a different ingredient than isolated CBD? Is CBD safe for everyone? What is a future path for hemp products with CBD as well as for other cannabinoids? Should CBD be allowed as a drug only, or is there a way for hemp extracts to be listed as a dietary supplement and food ingredient?


Journal Title Article Title Author(s) Published
Journal of Dietary Supplements Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids: From Toxicology and Pharmacology to the Development of a Regulatory Pathway Igor Koturbash, MD, PhD & Douglas MacKay 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Cannabidiol (CBD) in Dietary Supplements: Perspectives on Science, Safety, and Potential Regulatory Approaches Larry A. Walker, PhD, Igor Koturbash, PhD, Rick Kingston, PharmD, Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Charles Ryan Yates 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Differentiating Full-Spectrum Hemp Extracts from CBD Isolates: Implications for Policy, Safety and Science Osvaldo Marinotti, PhD & Miles Sarill, MSc 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Reality and Legality: Disentangling What Is Actual from What Is Tolerated in Comparisons of Hemp Extracts with Pure CBD P. S. Cogan 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Potential Probiotic or Trigger of Gut Inflammation – The Janus-Faced Nature of Cannabidiol-Rich Cannabis Extract Charles M. Skinner, BS, Intawat Nookaew , PhD, Laura E. Ewing , MSc, et al. 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Effects of Hemp Extract on Markers of Wellness, Stress Resilience, Recovery and Clinical Biomarkers of Safety in Overweight, But Otherwise Healthy Subjects Hector L. Lopez, MD, MS, Kyle R. Cesareo , MS, CCRC, Betsy Raub, et al. 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Post Marketing Safety of Plus CBD™ Products, a Full Spectrum Hemp Extract: A 2-Year Experience Stephen M. Schmitz, MD, MPH, Hector L. Lopez , MD, MS & Osvaldo Marinotti , PhD, MS 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Content versus Label Claims in Cannabidiol (CBD)-Containing Products Obtained from Commercial Outlets in the State of Mississippi Bill J. Gurley, PhD, Timothy P. Murphy, BA, Waseem Gul, PhD, et al. 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Practical Considerations of Hypotheses and Evidence in Cannabis Pharmacotherapy: Refining Expectations of Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Peter S. Cogan 2020
Journal of Dietary Supplements Naturally Occurring Cannabinoids and their Role in Modulation of Cardiovascular Health Elnaz Karimian Azari, PhD, Aileen Kerrigan & Annalouise O’Connor , PhD 2020

Information about the Guest Editors

Igor Koturbash

Igor Koturbash, MD, PhD is an Associate Professor and an Interim Chair at the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, and the Founder and Co-Director of the Center for Dietary Supplements Research at the Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR). Igor has a long-lasting interest in diet and dietary supplements and their impact on human health. Therefore, the major focus of his research is safety, efficacy and mechanisms of action of dietary supplements and understanding how diet and dietary supplements can modulate tissue response to cancer therapy.


Douglas ‘Duffy’ MacKay

Douglas ‘Duffy’ MacKay, N.D., is Senior Vice President, Scientific & Regulatory Affairs for CV Sciences, Inc., makers of PlusCBD™ where he is responsible for scientific innovation and regulatory compliance. Dr. MacKay came to CV Sciences after a 10-year career with the Council for Responsible Nutrition in Washington, D.C., where he served as a Senior VP, ensuring that the association’s scientific, policy and legislative positions were based on credible scientific rationale. Dr. MacKay is a member of the CRN Board of Directors, American Botanical Council (ABC) Advisory Board, and FDLI Cannabis-Derived Products Committee. In addition, he volunteers on several scientific journal editorial boards.