We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies.

Beyond Academia

The International Interactions Policy Blog

Find out more

International Interactions is a peer-reviewed journal with direct relevance to a wide and interdisciplinary audience. Readers include political scientists, economists, historians, mathematicians, statisticians, anthropologists, sociologists, and other social science researchers with an interest in international relations, as well as informed professionals in business and government.

This newly launched blog initiative aims to synthesize scholarly findings for a practitioner audience. Each blog post describes the policy takeaways of a recent II article, in the authors' own words, and is accompanied by a period of free access to the original published article. This is an exciting new opportunity to share the important scholarly work of the journal with engaged policymakers who can apply this research to current issues and challenges. 

Reconsidering Humanitarian Military Intervention

Thorsten Gromes & Matthias Dembinski outline the findings from their article, "Practices and outcomes of humanitarian military interventions: a new data set," published online in July 2019. This article is free-access until November 30, 2019.
Thorsten Gromes, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt

Dr. Thorsten Gromes is Project Director and Senior Researcher at the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, Germany. Learn more about Dr. Gromes here.

Matthias Dembinski, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt

Dr. Matthias Dembinski is Deputy Chairman of the Research Council, Project Director, and Senior Researcher at the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt, Germany. Learn more about Dr. Dembinski here.

Do humanitarian military interventions decrease or escalate levels of deadly violence?

Do they tend to shorten or prolong violent conflicts and mass atrocities? Under which conditions do humanitarian military interventions succeed or fail in stopping or reducing the killing? When answering these highly relevant questions, scholars have mainly referred to single case studies, and therefore comparative research on these issues is rare. A new data set promises academic relief by establishing a basis for such much-needed comparative analyses. It covers all humanitarian military interventions since the Second World War and presents information on target countries prior to, during, and after interventions. The data set also includes information on the interventions themselves, including their mandates, aims, activities, and aftermath.


Applying a widely-shared definition, we understand humanitarian military intervention as the threat or use of force, with the declared intention of protecting citizens in the targeted country from widespread violence. Defining this concept—recently also discussed under the label of the Responsibility to Protect—can be a contentious issue. Taking this into consideration, our data set includes information covering further aspects of humanitarian military interventions. This allows users to adapt our data set to their favored definition. The compilation consists of data matrices and structured case descriptions that document all coding decisions.


The data set allows us to reconsider certain commonly-held assumptions. For instance, the claim that humanitarian military interventions are on the wane is refuted by the number of ongoing operations and of violent conflicts that might trigger further humanitarian military interventions. Many commentators stress the dominant role of Western states and organizations. Our data set demonstrates that humanitarian military interventions are not a Western monopoly, as evidenced by interventions carried out by Russia, India, and African organizations.


The data set documents death rates caused by violent conflicts prior to and during interventions. This could be used to investigate the accuracy of further assumptions surrounding humanitarian military interventions, such as that most humanitarian military interventions worsen the situation in the target country, reduce the extent of organized violence, or have no impact at all.


The data set could also be used to explore the average effect of humanitarian military interventions by comparing crisis-ridden countries that experienced an intervention with a matched group of cases that exhibited the same relevant properties but in which no humanitarian military intervention occurred. Cases with humanitarian military interventions could also be compared with each other to identify conditions under which they are associated with either an escalation or a de-escalation of deadly violence. The Peace Research Institute Frankfurt’s ‘Data Set on Humanitarian Military Interventions since the Second World War’ paves the way for these and other politically relevant analyses.


Read the published article

Human Rights: International Norms, International Shaming

Zhanna Terechshenko, Charles Crabtree, Kristine Eck & Christopher J. Fariss share surprising findings from their peer-reviewed article, "Evaluating the influence of international norms and shaming on state respect for rights: an audit experiment with foreign embassies," published in International Interactions Vol. 45 Issue 4.

Read the policy post

Read the published article*

*This article is open access, which means it is available to everyone! 

Zhanna Terechshenko, PhD Candidate, Penn State

Zhanna Terechshenko is a PhD Candidate in Political Science and Social Data Analytics at the Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, USA. Learn more about Zhanna here, and follow her on Twitter @z_terechshenko.

Charles Crabtree, PhD, Dartmouth College

Charles Crabtree, PhD, is a Visiting Scholar in the Department of Government at Dartmouth College. Learn more about Dr. Crabtree here, and follow him on Twitter @cdcrabtree.

Kristine Eck, Uppsala University

Dr. Kristine Eck is an Associate Professor and Director of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala University, Sweden. Learn more about Dr. Eck.

Christopher J. Fariss, University of Michigan

Dr. Christopher J. Fariss is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Michigan, USA. Learn more about Dr. Fariss here, and follow him on Twitter @cjfariss.

A New Dataset on the First Intifada

Eitan Y. Alimi & Alon Burstein sum up the policy implications detailed in their peer-reviewed article with Gregory M. Maney, "Beyond the media’s radar: Introducing the Intifada Non-Media-Based Dataset," published in International Interactions Vol. 45 Issue 4.
Prof. Eitan Alimi, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Eitan Alimi, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Political Sociology at The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Learn more about Prof. Alimi.

Dr. Gregory Maney, formerly of Hofstra University

Gregory Maney, PhD, was the Harry H. Wachtel Distinguished Professor for the Study of Nonviolent Social Change at Hofstra University, Hempstead, New York, USA. Prof. Maney passed away in 2017. Learn more about his life's work and legacy.

Alon Burstein, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Alon Burstein is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Learn more about Alon.

IMF Lending and FDI Outflows: A Sectoral Perspective

Michael Breen & Patrick J. W. Egan explain the key policy takeaways from their peer-reviewed article, "The Catalytic Effect of IMF Lending: Evidence from Sectoral FDI Data," published in International Interactions Vol. 45 Issue 3.
Dr. Michael Breen, Dublin City University

Dr. Michael Breen is an Associate Professor at the School of Law and Government at Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. Learn more about Dr. Breen here, and follow him on Twitter @mbreen3. 

Dr. Patrick J. W. Egan, Tulane University

Dr. Patrick J. W. Egan is an Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Learn more about Dr. Egan.

International Interactions

International Interactions is a leading interdisciplinary journal that publishes original empirical, analytic, and theoretical studies of conflict and political economy. The journal has a particular interest in research that focuses upon the broad range of relations and interactions among the actors in the global system. Relevant topics include ethnic and religious conflict, interstate and intrastate conflict, conflict resolution, conflict management, economic development, regional integration, trade relations, institutions, globalization, terrorism, and geopolitical analyses. The journal aims to promote interaction among social science disciplines by encouraging interdisciplinary work among political scientists, economists, sociologists, anthropologists, geographers, statisticians, and mathematicians.

Visit Journal Articles

International Interactions cover

Stay up to date

Follow International Interactions on Twitter @II_journal! Latest posts previewed here.
View more posts