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Emerging and Re-emerging Coronaviruses

Guest Editor: Dr. Susan R Weiss (Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA)

Emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the latest “Wuhan Coronavirus” may cause epidemics or potentially pandemics of highly pathogenic human infectious diseases, posing great threats to the global health.

EMI's Special Issue on Emerging and Re-emerging Coronaviruses covers research and review articles on the basic, translational and clinical studies related to these coronaviruses. As an Open Access journal, all articles in EMI are fully downloadable.



Emerging Microbes and Infections

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Title Author Article Type
Will a new clade of SARS-CoV-2 imported into the community spark a fourth wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong? G. K.-H. Siu, L.-K. Lee, K. S.-S. Leung et al Letter
Excretion of COVID-19 Virus Through Fecal Specimens Y. Zhang, C. Chen, Y. Song et al Original Article
Massive dissemination of a SARS-CoV-2 variant with a D839Y mutation in the Spike fusion peptide in Portugal V. Borges, J. Isidro, H. Cortes-Martins et al Original Article
Low incidence of airborne SARS-CoV-2 in acute care hospital rooms with optimized ventilation N. Dumont-Leblond, M. Veillette, S. Mubareka et al Original Article
The Values and Limitations of Mathematical Modeling to COVID-19 in the World: A Follow Up Report Y. Tang, S. Tang & S. Wang Original Article
Human coronavirus dependency on host heat shock protein 90 reveals an antiviral target C. Li, H. Chu, X. Liu et al Original Article
Comparison of Transgenic and Adenovirus hACE2 Mouse Models for SARS-CoV-2 Infection R. Rathnasinghe, S. Strohmeier, F. Amanat et al Original Article
COVID-19 In Children Across Three Asian Cosmopolitan Regions G. T. Chua, X. Xiong, E. H. Choi et al Original Article
Validation and clinical evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test (sVNT) B. Meyer, J. Reimerink, G. Torriani et al Original Article
A Timely Update of Global COVID-19 Vaccine Development L. S. Klavinskis, M. A. Liu & S. Lu Commentary
Prolonged presence of viral nucleic acid in clinically recovered COVID-19 patients was not associated with effective infectiousness K. Hong, W. Cao, Z. Liu et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats N. N. Gaudreault, J. D. Trujillo, M. Carossino et al Original Article
Susceptibility of swine cells and domestic pigs to SARS-CoV-2 D. A. Meekins, I. Morozov, J. D. Trujillo et al Original Article
Establishment of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based recombinant viruses for SARS-CoV-2 entry and neutralizing study H. Li, C. Zhao, Y. Zhang et al Original Article
Targeting the endolysosomal host-SARS-CoV-2 interface by clinically licensed functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMA) including the antidepressant fluoxetine S. Schloer, L. Brunotte, J. Goretzko et al Original Article
Zoonotic and Reverse Zoonotic Events of SARS-CoV-2 and their Impact on Global Health K. Munir, S. Ashraf, I. Munir et al Review
Rapid Determination of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Using a Bedside, Point-of-Care, Serological Test L. Dortet, C. Emeraud, C. Vauloup-Fellous et al Original Article
Robust and persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human intestinal brush border expressing cells S. Lee, G. Y. Yoon, J. Myoung et al Original Article
Multicenter evaluation of two chemiluminescence and three lateral flow immunoassays for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and assessment of antibody dynamic responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan S.-Y. Chen, Y.-L. Lee, Y.-C. Lin et al Original Article
RSARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses are more robust in patients with severe disease P. Wang, L. Liu , M. S. Nair et al Letter
Robust neutralization assay based on SARS-CoV-2 S-protein-bearing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudovirus and ACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells H.-L. Xiong, Y.-T. Wu, J.-L. Cao et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 spike produced in insect cells elicits high neutralization titers in non-human primates T. Li, Q. Zheng, H. Yu et al Original Article
Dynamic changes of throat swabs RNA and serum antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 and their diagnostic performances in patients with COVID-19 X. Qiu, Y. Xiang. J. Sun et al Original Article
A serological survey of SARS-CoV-2 in cat in Wuhan Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Gao et al Original Article
A Newly Found Handbook for Developing Vaccines during World War II in China: The Legacy of Global Responses to Crises B. Ni, B. Xu & Y. Ni Commentary
Risks and features of secondary infections in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Wu et al Original Article
Accurate serology for SARS-CoV-2 and common human coronaviruses using a multiplex approach S. van Tol, R. Mögling, W. Li et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 infection: diagnostic testing results occasionally require special attention E. Riva, P. P. Sainaghi, O.Turriziani et al Letter
Naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 gene deletions close to the spike S1/S2 cleavage site in the viral quasispecies of COVID19 patients C. Andrés, D. Garcia-Cehic, J. Gregori et al Original Article
Corticosteroid prevents COVID-19 progression within its therapeutic window: a multicenter, proof-of-concept, observational study Y. Li, X. Zhou, T. Li et al Original Article
Delayed specific IgM antibody responses correlate with severe disease in COVID-19 patients X. Qiu, Y. Xiang, J. Sun et al Original Article
The ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Minas Gerais, Brazil: insights from epidemiological data and SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing J. Xavier, M. Giovanetti, T. Adelino et al Original Article
Dysregulation in Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 signaling identified by proteo-transcriptomics of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells S. Appelberg, S. Gupta, S. S. Akusjärvi et al Original Article
Status of Occupational Protection in the COVID-19 Fangcang Shelter Hospital in Wuhan, China M. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Yu et al Original Article
Shotgun proteomics of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and its application to the optimisation of whole viral particle antigen production for vaccines L. Grenga, F. Gallais, O. Pible et al Original Article
Profiles of COVID-19 clinical trials in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry P. Xu, X. Xing, K. Yu et al Review
High neutralizing antibody titer in intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 L. Liu, K. K.-W. To, K. H. Chan et al Original Article
Antibody kinetics in in primary- and secondary-care physicians with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection D. Orth-Höller, A. Eigentler, L. Weseslindtner & J. Möst Letter
Perception of the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among medical professionals in Germany: results from a nationwide online survey P. Paffenholz, A. Peine, M. Hellmich et al Original Article
Bat SARS-Like WIV1 coronavirus uses the ACE2 of multiple animal species as receptor and evades IFITM3 restriction via TMPRSS2 activation of membrane fusion M. Zheng, X. Zhao, S. Zheng et al Original Article
Epidemiology and clinical course of COVID-19 in Shanghai, China Y. Shen, F. Zheng, D. Sun et al Original Article
Risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection: a retrospective cohort study based on contacts tracing T. Liu,, W. Liang, H. Zhong et al Original Article
Serological differentiation between COVID-19 and SARS infections W. N. Chia, C. W. Tan, R. Foo et al Original Article
Organising a COVID-19 Triage Unit: a Swiss Perspective G. Peros, F. Gronki, N. Molitor et al Review
Retrospective detection of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness X. Yu, D. Wei, Y. Chen, D. Zhang & X. Zhang Letter
Kawasaki-like diseases and thrombotic coagulopathy in COVID-19: delayed over-activation of the STING pathway? J. -M. Berthelot, L. Drouet & F. Lioté Review
Virus strain from a mild COVID-19 patient in Hangzhou represents a new trend in SARS-CoV-2 evolution potentially related to Furin cleavage site X. Jin, K. Xu, P. Jiang et al Original Article
Development of an automatic integrated gene detection system for novel Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV 2) Y. Li, J. Li, Y. Zhang et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Taiwan revealed novel ORF8-deletion mutant and clade associatedAC with infections in Middle East Y. -N. Gong, K. -C. Tsao, M. -J. Hsiao et al Original Article
Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID-19 Y. Dong, X. Chi, H. Hai et al Original Article
Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Brazil: using a mathematical model to estimate the outbreak peak and temporal evolution Y. Tang, T. D. A. Serdan, L. N. Masi et al Letter
Experimental Aerosol Survival of SARS-CoV-2 in Artificial Saliva and Tissue Culture Media at Medium and High Humidity S. J. Smither, L. S. Eastaugh, J. S. Findlay & M. S. Lever Letter
SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, nsp14, nsp15 and orf6 function as potent interferon antagonists C.-K. Yuen, J.-Y. Lam, W.-M. Wong et al Original Article
Laboratory management for SARS-CoV-2 detection: a user-friendly combination of the heat treatment approach and rt-Real-time PCR testing F. Mancini, F. Barbanti, M. Scaturro et al Letter
Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Receptors as a Means for Reducing Infectivity and Improving Antiviral and Immune Response: An Algorithm-based Method For Overcoming Resistance To Antiviral Agents R. Gelman, A. Bayatra, A. Kessler, A. Schwartz & Y. Ilan Review
The burden, admission, and outcome of COVID-19 in Africa: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis D. B. Tadesse, G. G. Gebremeskel, G. G. Asefa et al Review
Nurse Infected with Covid-19 from a Provisional Dengue Patient W. Prasitsirikul, K. Pongpirul, W. A. Pongpirul et al Letter
COVID-19 pandemic – An African perspective S. A. Lone & A. Ahmad Review
Evaluating the use of posterior oropharyngeal saliva in a point-of-care assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 J. H.-K. Chen, C. C.-Y. Yip, R. W.-S. Poon et al Original Article
Genetic cluster analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and the identification of those responsible for the major outbreaks in various countries X. Yang, N. Dong, E. W.-C. Chan & S. Chen Original Article
Patterns of IgG and IgM antibody response in COVID-19 patients X. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu et al Letter
Dynamic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in children with COVID-19 P. Liu, J. Cai, R. Jia et al Letter
Structural basis of HCoV-19 fusion core and an effective inhibition peptide against virus entry H. Sun, Y. Li, P. Liu et al Letter
Clinical Characteristics of Foreign-Imported COVID-19 Cases in Shanghai, China X.-H. Liu, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen et al Letter
Viral loads in throat and anal swabs in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 C. Yuan, H. Zhu, Y. Yang et al Original Article
Analytical comparisons of SARS-COV-2 detection by qRT-PCR and ddPCR with multiple primer/probe sets X. Liu, J. Feng, Q. Zhang et al Letter
Gemcitabine, lycorine and oxysophoridine inhibit novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in cell culture Y.-N. Zhang, Q.-Y. Zhang, X.-D. Li et al Letter
Profiling serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients reveals IL-6 and IL-10 are disease severity predictors H. Han, Q. Ma, C. Li et al Original Article
Social distancing: how religion, culture and burial ceremony undermine the effort to curb COVID-19 in South Africa I. F. Jaja, M. U. Anyanwu & C.-J. I. Jaja Letter
Development of multi-specific humanized llama antibodies blocking SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction with high affinity and avidity J. Dong, B. Huang, Z. Jia et al Letter
Rheumotologitsts’ View on the Use of Hydroxychloroquine to Treat COVID-19 X. Sun, Y. Ni & M. Zhang Letter
Isolation of Infectious SARS-CoV-2 from Urine of a COVID-19 Patient J. Sun, A. Zhu, H. Li et al Letter
Development of reverse transcription - loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a rapid early-detection method for novel SARS-CoV-2 Y. H. Baek, J. Um, K. J. C. Antigua et al Original Article
Impact of population movement on the spread of 2019-nCoV in China C. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Shen et al Letter
Significance of Serology Testing to Assist Timely Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections: Implication from a Family Cluster Y. Xu, M. Xiao, X. Liu et al Letter
Kinetics of SARS-COV-2 specific IgM and IgG antibody responses in COVID-19 patients B. Sun, Y. Feng, X. Mo et al Original Article
Animal Models for Emerging Coronavirus: Progress and New Insights L. Yuan, Q. Tang, T. Cheng & N. Xia Review
Lack of cross neutralization by SARS patient sera towards SARS-CoV-2 D. E. Anderson, C. W. Tan, W. N. Chia et al Letter
Attenuated SARS-CoV-2 variants with deletions at the S1/S2 junction S.-Y. Lau, P. Wang, B. W.-Y. Mok et al Original Article
Different longitudinal patterns of nucleic acid and serology testing results based on disease severity of COVID-19 patients Y. Zhang, H. Shen, X. Wang et al Letter
Mathematic Modeling of COVID-19 in the United States Y. Tang & S. Wang Letter
Diagnostic Value and Key Features of Computed Tomography in Coronavirus Disease 2019 B. Li, X. Li, Y. Wang et al Review
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension J. Meng, G. Xiao, J. Zhang et al Letter
Transcriptomic characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in COVID-19 patients Y. Xiong, Y. Liu, L. Cao et al Original Article
Laboratory Diagnosis of Emerging Human Coronavirus Infections — The State of the Art M. J. Loeffelholz & Y.-W. Tang Review
Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection——a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia L. Lin, L. Lu, W. Cao & T. Li Review
Clinical Observation and Management of COVID-19 Patients T. Li, H. Lu & W. Zhang Commentary
The different clinical characteristics of corona virus disease cases between children and their families in China --the character of children with COVID-19 L. Su, X. Ma, H. Yu et al Original Article
Establishment and validation of a pseudovirus neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 J. Nie, Q. Li, J. Wu et al Original Article
Emerging COVID-19 coronavirus: glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26 N. Vankadari & J. A. Wilce Letter
Era of molecular diagnosis for pathogen identification of unexplained pneumonia, lessons to be learned J.-W. Ai, Y. Zhang, H.-C. Zhang, T. Xu & W.-H. Zhang Letter
Diagnosis and clinical management of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: an operational recommendation of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (V2.0) T. Li Review
A tug-of-war between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and host antiviral defense: Lessons from other pathogenic viruses S.-Y. Fung, K.-S. Yuen, Z.-W. Ye, C.-P. Chan & D.-Y. Jin Review
Timely Development of Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 S. Lu Commentary
Is SARS-CoV-2 originated from laboratory? A rebuttal to the claim of formation via laboratory recombination P. Hao, W. Zhong, S. Song, S. Fan & X. Li Commentary
Public’s early response to the novel coronavirus–Infected pneumonia S. Zhan, Y. Y. Yang & C. Fu Letter
Detectable 2019-nCoV viral RNA in Blood is a strong indicator for the further clinical severity W. Chen, Y. Lan, X. Yuan et al Letter
No credible evidence supporting claims of the laboratory engineering of SARS-CoV-2 S.-L. Liu, L. J. Saif, S. R. Weiss & L. Su Commentary
Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes W. Zhang, R.-H. Du, B. Li et al Original Article
Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody X. Tian, C. Li, A. Huang et al Letter
HIV-1 did not contribute to the 2019-nCoV genome C. Xiao, X. Li, S. Liu et al Commentary
RNA based mNGS approach identifies a novel human coronavirus from two individual pneumonia cases in 2019 Wuhan outbreak L. Chen, W. Liu, Q. Zhang et al Original Article
An emerging coronavirus causing pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China: calling for developing therapeutic and prophylactic strategies S. Jiang, L. Du & Z. Shi Commentary
Discovery of a subgenotype of human coronavirus NL63 associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection in China, 2018 Y. Wang, X. Li, W. Liu et al Original Article
Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan J. F.-W. Chan, K.-H. Kok, Z. Zhu et al Original Article