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Emerging and Re-emerging Coronaviruses

Guest Editor: Dr. Susan R Weiss (Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, USA)

Emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the latest “Wuhan Coronavirus” may cause epidemics or potentially pandemics of highly pathogenic human infectious diseases, posing great threats to the global health.

EMI's Special Issue on Emerging and Re-emerging Coronaviruses covers research and review articles on the basic, translational and clinical studies related to these coronaviruses. As an Open Access journal, all articles in EMI are fully downloadable.



Emerging Microbes and Infections

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Title Author Article
Preclinical evaluation of a synthetic peptide vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 inducing multiepitopic and cross-reactive humoral neutralizing and cellular CD4 and CD8 responses B. Aparicio, N. Casares, J. Egea et al Research Article
SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease outcomes in non-human primate models: advances and implications L. Yuan, Q. Tang, H. Zhu et al Review
High estradiol and low testosterone levels are associated with critical illness in male but not in female COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study M. Schroeder, B. Schaumburg, Z. Mueller et al Research Article
Long-term humoral immunogenicity, safety and protective efficacy of inactivated vaccine against COVID-19 (CoviVac) in preclinical studies L. I. Kozlovskaya, A. N. Piniaeva, G. M. Ignatyev et al Research Article
Host-dependent editing of SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients J. Gregori, M. F. Cortese, M. Piñana et al Research Article
Effectiveness of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines against the Delta variant infection in Guangzhou: a test-negative case–control real-world study X.-N. Li, Y. Huang, W. Wang et al Research Article
A novel SARS-CoV-2 related coronavirus with complex recombination isolated from bats in Yunnan province, China Li-li Li, Jing-lin Wang, Xiao-hua Ma et al. Original Article
Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in dogs and cats, USA Subarna Barua, Monirul Hoque, Folasade Adekanmbi et al. Original Article
Epidemiological and co-infection characteristics of common human coronaviruses in Shanghai, 2015–2020: a retrospective observational study Dechuan Kong, Yaxu Zheng, Linjie Hu et al. Original Article
Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and immunogenicity of MW33: a Phase 1 clinical study of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-targeting monoclonal antibody Xianmin Meng, Peipei Wang, Yanqing Xiong et al. Original Article
Boosting with heterologous vaccines effectively improves protective immune responses of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Jialu Zhang, Qian He, Chaoqiang An et al. Original Article
Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant interferon-armed RBD dimer vaccine (V-01) for COVID-19 in healthy adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase I trial Jikai Zhang, Zhongyu Hu, Jianfeng He et al. Original Article
Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus AdC7 expressing dimeric tandem-repeat spike protein RBD protects mice against COVID-19 Kun Xu, Yaling An, Qunlong Li et al. Original Article
A human cell-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine elicits potent neutralizing antibody responses and protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge Xiangchuan He, Longfei Ding, Kangli Cao et al. Original Article
Identification of a novel lineage bat SARS-related coronaviruses that use bat ACE2 receptor Hua Guo, Ben Hu, Hao-Rui Si et al. Original Article
Lentil lectin derived from Lens culinaris exhibit broad antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 variants Wenbo Wang, Qianqian Li, Jiajing Wu et al. Original Article
The impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the prevalence of respiratory tract pathogens in patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Germany Theo Dähne, Wolfgang Bauer, Andreas Essig et al. Letter
Live virus neutralization testing in convalescent patients and subjects vaccinated against 19A, 20B, 20I/501Y.V1 and 20H/501Y.V2 isolates of SARS-CoV-2 Carla Saade, Claudia Gonzalez, Antonin Bal et al. Letter
Emergence of the novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage VUI-NP13L and massive spread of P.2 in South Brazil Fernando Hayashi Sant’Anna, Ana Paula Muterle Varela, Janira Prichula et al. Original Article
Metagenomic next-generation sequencing in the family outbreak of psittacosis: the first reported family outbreak of psittacosis in China under COVID-19 Na Li, Shengjin Li, Wanmei Tan et al. Original Article
Potent RBD-specific neutralizing rabbit monoclonal antibodies recognize emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants elicited by DNA prime-protein boost vaccination Yuxin Chen, Liguo Zhu, Weijin Huang et al. Original Article
Rapidly emerging SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 sub-lineage in the United States of America with spike protein D178H and membrane protein V70L mutations L. Shen, J. D. Bard, T. J. Triche et al Original Article
Prior aerosol infection with lineage A SARS-CoV-2 variant protects hamsters from disease, but not reinfection with B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variant C. K. Yinda, J. R. Port, T. Bushmaker Original Article
Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections after full schedule BNT162b2 vaccination in seropositive healthcare workers: a case series from a single institution A. Baj, F. Novazzi, A. Genoni et al Letter
Serosurvey in BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies against authentic B.1, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.525 and P.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants A. Zani, F. Caccuri, S. Messali et al Letter
Structure-based design and characterization of novel fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants D. Yu, Y. Zhu, T. Jiao et al Original Article
H1N1 exposure during the convalescent stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection results in enhanced lung pathologic damage in hACE2 transgenic mice H. Li, X. Zhao, Y. Zhao et al Original Article
Multiple detection and spread of novel strains of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.177 (B.1.177.75) lineage that test negative by a commercially available nucleocapsid gene real-time RT-PCR L. Amato, L. Jurisic, I. Puglia et al Original Article
Intensified antibody response elicited by boost suggests immune memory in individuals administered two doses of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine Y. Liao, Y. Zhang, H. Zhao et al Letter
Germline IGHV3-53-encoded RBD-targeting neutralizing antibodies are commonly present in the antibody repertoires of COVID-19 patients Q. Yan, P. He, X. Huang et al Original Article
Hypoxia reduces cell attachment of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by modulating the expression of ACE2, neuropilin-1, syndecan-1 and cellular heparan sulfate E. Prieto-Fernández, L. Egia-Mendikute, L. Vila-Vecilla et al Original Article
Mining of linear B cell epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 protein from COVID-19 patients X. Wang, J.-Y. Lam, L. Chen et al Original Article
The COVID-19-designated hospitals in China: preparing for public health emergencies Q. Lia, L. Wang, B. Wang et al Commentary
Prime-boost vaccination of mice and rhesus macaques with two novel adenovirus vectored COVID-19 vaccine candidates S. Luo, P. Zhang, B. Liu et al Original Article
A novel diagnostic test to screen SARS-CoV-2 variants containing E484K and N501Y mutations Y. Zhao, A. Lee, K. Composto et al Original Article
Serological investigation of asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals weak and declining antibody responses Y. Yang, X. Wang, R.-H. Du et al Original Article
A real-time and high-throughput neutralization test based on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus containing monomeric infrared fluorescent protein as reporter W.-Y. Tsai, L. L. Ching, S.-C. Hsieh et al Original Article
Emerging variants of concern in SARS-CoV-2 membrane protein: a highly conserved target with potential pathological and therapeutic implications L. Shen, J. D. Bard, T. J. Triche et al Original Article
A novel linker-immunodominant site (LIS) vaccine targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein protects against severe COVID-19 in Syrian hamsters B. Z. Zhang, X. Wang, S. Yuan et al Original Article
Protection against reinfection with D614- or G614-SARS-CoV-2 isolates in golden Syrian hamster M. Brustolin, J. Rodon, M. Rodríguez de la Concepción et al Original Article
Correlation of humoral immune responses to different SARS-CoV-2 antigens with virus neutralizing antibodies and symptomatic severity in a German COVID-19 cohort A. Rockstroh, J. Wolf, J. Fertey et al Original Article
Introduction of SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern 20h/501Y.V2 (B.1.351) from Malawi to Italy F. Novazzi, A. Genoni, P. G.Spezia et al Letter
Cross-reactive antibody against human coronavirus OC43 spike protein correlates with disease severity in COVID-19 patients: a retrospective study L. Guo,Y. Wang, L. Kang Original Article
Experimental re-infected cats do not transmit SARS-CoV-2 N. N. Gaudreault, J. D. Trujillo, M. Carossino et al Original Article
Heterologous prime-boost: breaking the protective immune response bottleneck of COVID-19 vaccine candidates Q. He, Q. Mao, C. An et al Original Article
Lessons learned 1 year after SARS-CoV-2 emergence leading to COVID-19 pandemic K. K.-W. To, S. Sridhar, K. H.-Y. Chiu et al Review
The preclinical inhibitor GS441524 in combination with GC376 efficaciously inhibited the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 in the mouse respiratory tract Y. Shi, L. Shuai, Z. Wen et al Original Article
Role of ACE2 genetic polymorphisms in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 among highly exposed but non infected healthcare workers J. Martínez-Sanz, D. Jiménez, L. Martínez-Campelo et al Letter
Human challenge trials to assess the efficacy of currently approved COVID-19 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants S. Su, Y. Shao & S. Jiang Commentary
A household case evidences shorter shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in naturally infected cats compared to their human owners V. Neira, B. Brito, B. Agüero et al Original Article
A novel DNA and protein combination COVID-19 vaccine formulation provides full protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques Y. Li, Y. Bi, H. Xiao et al Original Article
The in vitro antiviral activity of lactoferrin against common human coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 is mediated by targeting the heparan sulfate co-receptor Y. Hua, X. Meng, F. Zhang et al Original Article
Beneficial effect of combinational methylprednisolone and remdesivir in hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection Z.-W. Ye, S. Yuan, J. F.-W. Chan et al Original Article
Saliva viral load better correlates with clinical and immunological profiles in children with coronavirus disease 2019 G. T. Chua, J. S. C. Wong, K. K. W. To et al Original Article
Isolation of SARS-CoV-2 strains carrying a nucleotide mutation, leading to a stop codon in the ORF 6 protein S. Delbue, S. D’Alessandro, L. Signorini et al Letter
COVID-19-associated cytokine storm syndrome and diagnostic principles: an old and new Issue X. Yongzhi Review
The interplay between emerging human coronavirus infections and autophagy Z. Zhao, K. Lu, B. Mao et al Review
Fast inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by UV-C and ozone exposure on different materials E. Criscuolo, R. A. Diotti, R. Ferrarese et al Letter
SARS-CoV-2 proteases PLpro and 3CLpro cleave IRF3 and critical modulators of inflammatory pathways (NLRP12 and TAB1): implications for disease presentation across species M. Moustaqil, E. Ollivier, H.-P. Chiu et al Original Article
Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 ORF6 deletion variants detected in a nosocomial cluster during routine genomic surveillance, Lyon, France G. Quéromès, G. Destras, A. Bal et al Original Article
Critical role of neutralizing antibody for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and transmission Y.-I. Kim, S.-M. Kim, S.-J. Park et al Original Article
Novel dual multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for the rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and respiratory syncytial virus using the BD MAX open system H.-Y. Chung, M.-J. Jian, C.-K. Chang et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 genomic characterization and clinical manifestation of the COVID-19 outbreak in Uruguay V. Elizondo, G. W. Harkins, B. Mabvakure et al Original Article
Structure of the multiple functional domains from coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 M. Li, G. Ye, Y. Si et al Original Article
Susceptibility of rabbits to SARS-CoV-2 A. Z. Mykytyn, M. M. Lamers, N. M. A. Okba et al Original Article


Title Author Article Type
Detection of breastmilk antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid, spike and receptor-binding-domain antigens D. M. Favaraabc, M. L. Ceron-Gutierrezd, G. W. Carnelle et al Letter
Defining the Syrian hamster as a highly susceptible preclinical model for SARS-CoV-2 infection K. Rosenkea, K. Meade-Whitea, M. Letkoa et al Original Article
An infectious cDNA clone of a growth attenuated Korean isolate of MERS coronavirus KNIH002 in clade B M. Kim, H. Cho, S.-H. Lee et al Original Article
High anal swab viral load predisposes adverse clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients H. Liab, L. Rencd, L. Zhang et al Original Article
Loss of orf3b in the circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains J.-Y. Lam, C.-K. Yuen, J. D. Ip et al Original Article
Human coronavirus dependency on host heat shock protein 90 reveals an antiviral target C. Lia, H. Cha, X. Liu et al Original Article
Human coronavirus dependency on host heat shock protein 90 reveals an antiviral target C. Li, H. Chu, X. Liu et al Original Article
Biochemical and antigenic characterization of the structural proteins and their post-translational modifications in purified SARS-CoV-2 virions of an inactivated vaccine candidate X.-Y. Zhang, J. Guo, X. Wan et al Original Article
Low toxicity and high immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine candidate against COVID-19 in different animal models Z.-J. Wang, H.-J. Zhang, J. Lu et al Original Article
Prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients with COVID-19 Q. Lia, X.-S. Zheng, X.-R. Shen et al Original Article
Low incidence of airborne SARS-CoV-2 in acute care hospital rooms with optimized ventilation N. Dumont-Leblond, M. Veillette, S. Mubareka et al Original Article
COVID-19 in children across three Asian cosmopolitan regions G. T. Chua, X. Xiong, E. H. Choi et al Original Article
A lateral flow immunoassay test performance in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys: a validation study among healthcare workers R. Garlantézeca, C. Heslana, E. Tadieb et al Letter
Will a new clade of SARS-CoV-2 imported into the community spark a fourth wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong? G. K.-H. Siu, L.-K. Lee, K. S.-S. Leung et al Letter
Excretion of COVID-19 Virus Through Fecal Specimens Y. Zhang, C. Chen, Y. Song et al Original Article
Massive dissemination of a SARS-CoV-2 variant with a D839Y mutation in the Spike fusion peptide in Portugal V. Borges, J. Isidro, H. Cortes-Martins et al Original Article
The Values and Limitations of Mathematical Modeling to COVID-19 in the World: A Follow Up Report Y. Tang, S. Tang & S. Wang Original Article
Comparison of Transgenic and Adenovirus hACE2 Mouse Models for SARS-CoV-2 Infection R. Rathnasinghe, S. Strohmeier, F. Amanat et al Original Article
Validation and clinical evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test (sVNT) B. Meyer, J. Reimerink, G. Torriani et al Original Article
A Timely Update of Global COVID-19 Vaccine Development L. S. Klavinskis, M. A. Liu & S. Lu Commentary
Prolonged presence of viral nucleic acid in clinically recovered COVID-19 patients was not associated with effective infectiousness K. Hong, W. Cao, Z. Liu et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 infection, disease and transmission in domestic cats N. N. Gaudreault, J. D. Trujillo, M. Carossino et al Original Article
Susceptibility of swine cells and domestic pigs to SARS-CoV-2 D. A. Meekins, I. Morozov, J. D. Trujillo et al Original Article
Establishment of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based recombinant viruses for SARS-CoV-2 entry and neutralizing study H. Li, C. Zhao, Y. Zhang et al Original Article
Targeting the endolysosomal host-SARS-CoV-2 interface by clinically licensed functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase (FIASMA) including the antidepressant fluoxetine S. Schloer, L. Brunotte, J. Goretzko et al Original Article
Zoonotic and Reverse Zoonotic Events of SARS-CoV-2 and their Impact on Global Health K. Munir, S. Ashraf, I. Munir et al Review
Rapid Determination of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Using a Bedside, Point-of-Care, Serological Test L. Dortet, C. Emeraud, C. Vauloup-Fellous et al Original Article
Robust and persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human intestinal brush border expressing cells S. Lee, G. Y. Yoon, J. Myoung et al Original Article
Multicenter evaluation of two chemiluminescence and three lateral flow immunoassays for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and assessment of antibody dynamic responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan S.-Y. Chen, Y.-L. Lee, Y.-C. Lin et al Original Article
RSARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses are more robust in patients with severe disease P. Wang, L. Liu , M. S. Nair et al Letter
Robust neutralization assay based on SARS-CoV-2 S-protein-bearing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudovirus and ACE2-overexpressing BHK21 cells H.-L. Xiong, Y.-T. Wu, J.-L. Cao et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 spike produced in insect cells elicits high neutralization titers in non-human primates T. Li, Q. Zheng, H. Yu et al Original Article
Dynamic changes of throat swabs RNA and serum antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 and their diagnostic performances in patients with COVID-19 X. Qiu, Y. Xiang. J. Sun et al Original Article
A serological survey of SARS-CoV-2 in cat in Wuhan Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. Gao et al Original Article
A Newly Found Handbook for Developing Vaccines during World War II in China: The Legacy of Global Responses to Crises B. Ni, B. Xu & Y. Ni Commentary
Risks and features of secondary infections in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, J. Wu et al Original Article
Accurate serology for SARS-CoV-2 and common human coronaviruses using a multiplex approach S. van Tol, R. Mögling, W. Li et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 infection: diagnostic testing results occasionally require special attention E. Riva, P. P. Sainaghi, O.Turriziani et al Letter
Naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 gene deletions close to the spike S1/S2 cleavage site in the viral quasispecies of COVID19 patients C. Andrés, D. Garcia-Cehic, J. Gregori et al Original Article
Corticosteroid prevents COVID-19 progression within its therapeutic window: a multicenter, proof-of-concept, observational study Y. Li, X. Zhou, T. Li et al Original Article
Delayed specific IgM antibody responses correlate with severe disease in COVID-19 patients X. Qiu, Y. Xiang, J. Sun et al Original Article
The ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Minas Gerais, Brazil: insights from epidemiological data and SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequencing J. Xavier, M. Giovanetti, T. Adelino et al Original Article
Dysregulation in Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 signaling identified by proteo-transcriptomics of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells S. Appelberg, S. Gupta, S. S. Akusjärvi et al Original Article
Status of Occupational Protection in the COVID-19 Fangcang Shelter Hospital in Wuhan, China M. Zhang, L. Wang, S. Yu et al Original Article
Shotgun proteomics of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and its application to the optimisation of whole viral particle antigen production for vaccines L. Grenga, F. Gallais, O. Pible et al Original Article
Profiles of COVID-19 clinical trials in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry P. Xu, X. Xing, K. Yu et al Review
High neutralizing antibody titer in intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 L. Liu, K. K.-W. To, K. H. Chan et al Original Article
Antibody kinetics in in primary- and secondary-care physicians with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection D. Orth-Höller, A. Eigentler, L. Weseslindtner & J. Möst Letter
Perception of the 2020 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among medical professionals in Germany: results from a nationwide online survey P. Paffenholz, A. Peine, M. Hellmich et al Original Article
Bat SARS-Like WIV1 coronavirus uses the ACE2 of multiple animal species as receptor and evades IFITM3 restriction via TMPRSS2 activation of membrane fusion M. Zheng, X. Zhao, S. Zheng et al Original Article
Epidemiology and clinical course of COVID-19 in Shanghai, China Y. Shen, F. Zheng, D. Sun et al Original Article
Risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection: a retrospective cohort study based on contacts tracing T. Liu,, W. Liang, H. Zhong et al Original Article
Serological differentiation between COVID-19 and SARS infections W. N. Chia, C. W. Tan, R. Foo et al Original Article
Organising a COVID-19 Triage Unit: a Swiss Perspective G. Peros, F. Gronki, N. Molitor et al Review
Retrospective detection of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness X. Yu, D. Wei, Y. Chen, D. Zhang & X. Zhang Letter
Kawasaki-like diseases and thrombotic coagulopathy in COVID-19: delayed over-activation of the STING pathway? J. -M. Berthelot, L. Drouet & F. Lioté Review
Virus strain from a mild COVID-19 patient in Hangzhou represents a new trend in SARS-CoV-2 evolution potentially related to Furin cleavage site X. Jin, K. Xu, P. Jiang et al Original Article
Development of an automatic integrated gene detection system for novel Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV 2) Y. Li, J. Li, Y. Zhang et al Original Article
SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Taiwan revealed novel ORF8-deletion mutant and clade associatedAC with infections in Middle East Y. -N. Gong, K. -C. Tsao, M. -J. Hsiao et al Original Article
Antibodies in the breast milk of a maternal woman with COVID-19 Y. Dong, X. Chi, H. Hai et al Original Article
Epidemiology of COVID-19 in Brazil: using a mathematical model to estimate the outbreak peak and temporal evolution Y. Tang, T. D. A. Serdan, L. N. Masi et al Letter
Experimental Aerosol Survival of SARS-CoV-2 in Artificial Saliva and Tissue Culture Media at Medium and High Humidity S. J. Smither, L. S. Eastaugh, J. S. Findlay & M. S. Lever Letter
SARS-CoV-2 nsp13, nsp14, nsp15 and orf6 function as potent interferon antagonists C.-K. Yuen, J.-Y. Lam, W.-M. Wong et al Original Article
Laboratory management for SARS-CoV-2 detection: a user-friendly combination of the heat treatment approach and rt-Real-time PCR testing F. Mancini, F. Barbanti, M. Scaturro et al Letter
Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Receptors as a Means for Reducing Infectivity and Improving Antiviral and Immune Response: An Algorithm-based Method For Overcoming Resistance To Antiviral Agents R. Gelman, A. Bayatra, A. Kessler, A. Schwartz & Y. Ilan Review
The burden, admission, and outcome of COVID-19 in Africa: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis D. B. Tadesse, G. G. Gebremeskel, G. G. Asefa et al Review
Nurse Infected with Covid-19 from a Provisional Dengue Patient W. Prasitsirikul, K. Pongpirul, W. A. Pongpirul et al Letter
COVID-19 pandemic – An African perspective S. A. Lone & A. Ahmad Review
Evaluating the use of posterior oropharyngeal saliva in a point-of-care assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 J. H.-K. Chen, C. C.-Y. Yip, R. W.-S. Poon et al Original Article
Genetic cluster analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and the identification of those responsible for the major outbreaks in various countries X. Yang, N. Dong, E. W.-C. Chan & S. Chen Original Article
Patterns of IgG and IgM antibody response in COVID-19 patients X. Liu, J. Wang, X. Xu et al Letter
Dynamic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in children with COVID-19 P. Liu, J. Cai, R. Jia et al Letter
Structural basis of HCoV-19 fusion core and an effective inhibition peptide against virus entry H. Sun, Y. Li, P. Liu et al Letter
Clinical Characteristics of Foreign-Imported COVID-19 Cases in Shanghai, China X.-H. Liu, S.-H. Lu, J. Chen et al Letter
Viral loads in throat and anal swabs in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 C. Yuan, H. Zhu, Y. Yang et al Original Article
Analytical comparisons of SARS-COV-2 detection by qRT-PCR and ddPCR with multiple primer/probe sets X. Liu, J. Feng, Q. Zhang et al Letter
Gemcitabine, lycorine and oxysophoridine inhibit novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in cell culture Y.-N. Zhang, Q.-Y. Zhang, X.-D. Li et al Letter
Profiling serum cytokines in COVID-19 patients reveals IL-6 and IL-10 are disease severity predictors H. Han, Q. Ma, C. Li et al Original Article
Social distancing: how religion, culture and burial ceremony undermine the effort to curb COVID-19 in South Africa I. F. Jaja, M. U. Anyanwu & C.-J. I. Jaja Letter
Development of multi-specific humanized llama antibodies blocking SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction with high affinity and avidity J. Dong, B. Huang, Z. Jia et al Letter
Rheumotologitsts’ View on the Use of Hydroxychloroquine to Treat COVID-19 X. Sun, Y. Ni & M. Zhang Letter
Isolation of Infectious SARS-CoV-2 from Urine of a COVID-19 Patient J. Sun, A. Zhu, H. Li et al Letter
Development of reverse transcription - loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a rapid early-detection method for novel SARS-CoV-2 Y. H. Baek, J. Um, K. J. C. Antigua et al Original Article
Impact of population movement on the spread of 2019-nCoV in China C. Zhang, C. Chen, W. Shen et al Letter
Significance of Serology Testing to Assist Timely Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections: Implication from a Family Cluster Y. Xu, M. Xiao, X. Liu et al Letter
Kinetics of SARS-COV-2 specific IgM and IgG antibody responses in COVID-19 patients B. Sun, Y. Feng, X. Mo et al Original Article
Animal Models for Emerging Coronavirus: Progress and New Insights L. Yuan, Q. Tang, T. Cheng & N. Xia Review
Lack of cross neutralization by SARS patient sera towards SARS-CoV-2 D. E. Anderson, C. W. Tan, W. N. Chia et al Letter
Attenuated SARS-CoV-2 variants with deletions at the S1/S2 junction S.-Y. Lau, P. Wang, B. W.-Y. Mok et al Original Article
Different longitudinal patterns of nucleic acid and serology testing results based on disease severity of COVID-19 patients Y. Zhang, H. Shen, X. Wang et al Letter
Mathematic Modeling of COVID-19 in the United States Y. Tang & S. Wang Letter
Diagnostic Value and Key Features of Computed Tomography in Coronavirus Disease 2019 B. Li, X. Li, Y. Wang et al Review
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension J. Meng, G. Xiao, J. Zhang et al Letter
Transcriptomic characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in COVID-19 patients Y. Xiong, Y. Liu, L. Cao et al Original Article
Laboratory Diagnosis of Emerging Human Coronavirus Infections — The State of the Art M. J. Loeffelholz & Y.-W. Tang Review
Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection——a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia L. Lin, L. Lu, W. Cao & T. Li Review
Clinical Observation and Management of COVID-19 Patients T. Li, H. Lu & W. Zhang Commentary
The different clinical characteristics of corona virus disease cases between children and their families in China --the character of children with COVID-19 L. Su, X. Ma, H. Yu et al Original Article
Establishment and validation of a pseudovirus neutralization assay for SARS-CoV-2 J. Nie, Q. Li, J. Wu et al Original Article
Emerging COVID-19 coronavirus: glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26 N. Vankadari & J. A. Wilce Letter
Era of molecular diagnosis for pathogen identification of unexplained pneumonia, lessons to be learned J.-W. Ai, Y. Zhang, H.-C. Zhang, T. Xu & W.-H. Zhang Letter
Diagnosis and clinical management of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: an operational recommendation of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (V2.0) T. Li Review
A tug-of-war between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and host antiviral defense: Lessons from other pathogenic viruses S.-Y. Fung, K.-S. Yuen, Z.-W. Ye, C.-P. Chan & D.-Y. Jin Review
Timely Development of Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 S. Lu Commentary
Is SARS-CoV-2 originated from laboratory? A rebuttal to the claim of formation via laboratory recombination P. Hao, W. Zhong, S. Song, S. Fan & X. Li Commentary
Public’s early response to the novel coronavirus–Infected pneumonia S. Zhan, Y. Y. Yang & C. Fu Letter
Detectable 2019-nCoV viral RNA in Blood is a strong indicator for the further clinical severity W. Chen, Y. Lan, X. Yuan et al Letter
No credible evidence supporting claims of the laboratory engineering of SARS-CoV-2 S.-L. Liu, L. J. Saif, S. R. Weiss & L. Su Commentary
Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes W. Zhang, R.-H. Du, B. Li et al Original Article
Potent binding of 2019 novel coronavirus spike protein by a SARS coronavirus-specific human monoclonal antibody X. Tian, C. Li, A. Huang et al Letter
HIV-1 did not contribute to the 2019-nCoV genome C. Xiao, X. Li, S. Liu et al Commentary
RNA based mNGS approach identifies a novel human coronavirus from two individual pneumonia cases in 2019 Wuhan outbreak L. Chen, W. Liu, Q. Zhang et al Original Article
An emerging coronavirus causing pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China: calling for developing therapeutic and prophylactic strategies S. Jiang, L. Du & Z. Shi Commentary
Discovery of a subgenotype of human coronavirus NL63 associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection in China, 2018 Y. Wang, X. Li, W. Liu et al Original Article
Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan J. F.-W. Chan, K.-H. Kok, Z. Zhu et al Original Article